Additional Resources

     Impact Evaluations

The World Bank Group has increased investments in gender-informed operations and research in recent years. Impact evaluation (IE) is one important part of this momentum. Impact evaluations increase understanding of what works, and what doesn’t, to improve outcomes that are critical to increasing gender equality in different contexts around the world. Impact evaluations can drive and test innovation, and contribute to evidence-based practice and policy-making.

Innovations for Poverty Action
Innovations for Poverty Action is a nonprofit dedicated to discovering what works to help the world’s poor. IPA designs and evaluates programs in real contexts with real people, and provide hands-on assistance to bring successful programs to scale.

J-PAL Evaluations, MIT
The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL) was established in 2003 as a research center at the Economics Department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Since then, it has grown into a global network of researchers who use randomized evaluations to answer critical policy questions in the fight against poverty. J-PAL’s mission is to reduce poverty by ensuring that policy is based on scientific evidence, and research is translated into action.

Roadmap for Promoting Women’s Economic Empowerment
Research has demonstrated that when women are economically empowered, entire communities benefit. Yet until now, there has been a crucial knowledge gap regarding the most effective interventions to advance women’s economic opportunities. To address this gap, the UN Foundation and the ExxonMobil Foundation joined forces to identify interventions that are proven, promising or have a high potential to increase productivity and earnings for different groups of women in diverse country contexts.

     Measuring Gender Gaps

Catalyst: Practices - Innovative Models for Change
The organization Catalyst has been conducting research, examining diversity in the workplace (including board diversity), pay gaps, and employee diversity. Each year, Catalyst’s publishes a series of Practices reports on organizational best practice efforts toward diversity. These practices are defined as “strategies that support diversity and inclusion efforts, including both programs specific to a group or region and company-wide strategies that advance women and other groups”. Examples of practices that have been formally recognized by Catalyst include IBM’s Blue Talent Program and Nestlé’s Gender Balance Initiative. IBM’s Blue Talent Program was launched in program aims to strength the organization’s pipeline by providing development opportunities for women. This program began in Spain, Portugal, Greece and Israel and is now used in most of IBM’s main business regions. Nestlé’s Gender Balance Initiative was launched in 2008 and helps prioritize gender as a dimension of diversity, especially at management levels. Thirty six percent of these practices are US-based, and 28.7 percent are global (in three or more regions), with Latin America having the least number of practices at 2.3 percent.

European Institute for Gender Equality: Gender Equality Index
In 2013, the European Institute for Gender Equality launched its Gender Equality Index report, where it documents the position of the European Union in terms of gender equality. It ranks EU countries based on their gender gaps in several sub-categories including work, money, knowledge, time, health, power, violence, and other intersecting inequalities. Over three years, the report found that the EU countries has an average score of 54 points on the Gender Inequality Index, where 1 stands for absolute gender inequality and 100 marks full gender equality. Sweden leads the group with an index of 74.3, and Romania has the lowest index at 35.3 points.

OECD: Social Institutions and Gender Index
In 2012, the OECD’s Development Center published its first Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI), which reports provide a composite index of gender inequality. The measure uses five sub-indices to calculate this score: discriminatory family code, restricted physical integrity, son bias, restricted resources and assets, and restricted civil liberties. With data collected over two years, countries with low SIGI have low levels of gender discrimination in social institutions, with OECD nations leading the group. Belgium has the lowest SIGI with a score of 0.0015. Middle Eastern and North African countries have the highest SIGI scores, which represents very high levels of gender discrimination. Yemen has the highest SIGI with 0.5634, followed by Sudan with 0.5550.

UNDP: Gender Inequality Index
In 2010, the UNDP launched its Gender Inequality Index (GII), which is a composite measure that calculates differences in the distribution of achievements between women and men across countries. The measure uses three dimensions to calculate this score: (1) reproductive health measured by maternal mortality ratio and adolescent birth rates, (2) empowerment measured by proportion of parliamentary seats occupied by females and proportion of adult females and males aged 25 years and older with at least some secondary education, and (3) labor market participation rates. It measures the human development costs of gender inequality, thus the higher the GII value the more disparities between females and males. With data collected over five years, the world average score on the GII is 0.451, which represents a 45.1 percentage loss in achievement due to gender inequality. The European Union member states have a lower percent loss of 12.6 percent, with Slovenia leading the pack with percent loss of only 2.1 percent in achievement. Sub-Saharan Africa experiences the largest loss of 57.8 percent, with Yemen experiencing the highest percent loss with 73.3 percent in achievement due to gender inequalities.

World Bank: Women, Business and the Law
In 2014, the World Bank published the third edition of Women, Business, and the Law, which analyses the legal differentiations on the basis of gender in 143 economies around the world. The report covers six areas in relation to gender: accessing institutions, using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court. A seventh area, protecting women from violence, has recently been added for 100 economies.  Almost 90% of the 143 economies covered by the World Bank Report have at least one legal difference in one of these areas restricting women’s economic opportunities. Twenty-eight economics have 10 or more restrictions, and 25 of these countries are located in the Middle East, North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa.

World Economic Forum: Corporate Gender Gap
In 2010, the World Economic Forum released the Corporate Gender Gap as a follow-up to the Global Gender Gap Index, which was introduced in 2006. The report aims to shed light on the gender gaps in economic participation and opportunity. Using a survey of 100 large employers in the OECD, the report looked at representation of women in business, measurement and target setting, work-life balance practices, mentorship and training, barriers to leadership and effects of economic downturn. The results displayed a variety of results for the companies and regions involved. The United States had the highest percentage of female employees at 52 percent and India had the lowest percentage of female employees at 23 percent. Italy ranked highest on tracked salary differences at 56 percent, with Canada ranking highest on not tracking salary gaps at all at 50 percent. One hundred percent of companies in the United States and the United Kingdom offer their employees access to mentorship and networking opportunities, with Spain providing the lowest access at 21 percent of companies providing such programs.

World Economic Forum: Global Gender Gap
In 2006, the World Economic Forum first launched its Gender Gap Report measuring the existing gender gaps in economic, political, education and health. Since then, WEF has annually published a report measuring how gender gaps are changing and to what extent countries have closed their gender gap. It ranks countries on their overall performance, as well as on how well they do in four sub-categories. Over nine years, the Scandinavian countries have been leading the pack with Iceland having closed the overall gap by 87.3 percent as of 2013. Generally, Middle Eastern and North African countries have fared worst, with Yemen having closed only 51.2 percent of the overall gap.

World Bank: The Little Data Book on Gender 2016
This handy pocket guide is a quick reference for users interested in gender statistics. The book presents sex-disaggregated data for more than 200 economies in an easy country-by-country reference on demography, education, health, labor force, political participation and the Millennium Development Goals. The book's summary pages cover regional and income group aggregates.

CAWP Facts on Women Officeholders, Candidates and Voters
CAWP (The Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics at Rutgers) offers fact sheets, graphics, research reports, and other information organized both by topic and by level of office.

Gender and Land Rights Database
Disparities on land access are one of the major causes for social and gender inequalities in rural areas. Gender differentiated rights to land have implications on rural food security and nutrition as well as on the wellbeing of rural families and individuals. Learn more about the different factors that relate to gender inequalities embedded in land rights.

Global Report on Gender Equality in Public Administration
The UNDP Global Report on Gender Equality in Public Administration (GEPA), reflects extensive research based on available national data, and provides analysis of the obstacles in the way of women’s equal participation and decision-making in public administration.

Global Gender Gap Report, World Economic Forum
The Global Gender Gap Report, introduced by the World Economic Forum in 2006, provides a framework for capturing the magnitude and scope of gender-based disparities around the world. The index benchmarks national gender gaps on economic, political, education- and health-based criteria and provides country rankings that allow for effective comparison across regions and income groups and over time.

Inter-Parliamentary Union: Women in National Parliaments
Data compiled by the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) on the basis of information provided by National Parliaments, updated regularly. 189 countries are classified by descending order of the percentage of women in the lower or single House. Includes comparative data on the world and regional averages as well as data concerning the two regional parliamentary assemblies elected by direct suffrage.

OECD Gender Data Portal
The OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Gender Data Portal includes selected indicators shedding light on gender inequalities in education, employment and entrepreneurship. The data cover OECD member countries, as well as Russia, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, and South Africa.

Women, Business and the Law, IFC, The World Bank
Women, Business and the Law focuses on setting out in an objective fashion legal differentiations on the basis of gender in 143 economies around the world, covering 6 areas -- accessing institutions, using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, building credit, and going to court.

World Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics
This gender data portal is a one-stop shop for gender information, catering to a wide range of users and providing data from a variety of sources. Data at the country level are organized under six thematic headings, which are aligned to the themes identified by the Inter-agency and Expert Group on Gender Statistics.

World Bank Financial Inclusion Data: Gender
There are significant disparities along gender lines in how adults save, make payments, borrow money and manage risk. Worldwide, 55 percent of men report having an account at a formal financial institution, while only 47 percent of women do. The gender gap is largest among lower middle income economies as well as in South Asia and the Middle East and North Africa.

World Health Organization (WHO): Women's Health   
Being a man or a woman has a significant impact on health, as a result of both biological and gender-related differences. The health of women and girls is of particular concern because, in many societies, they are disadvantaged by discrimination rooted in sociocultural factors. While poverty is an important barrier to positive health outcomes for both men and women, poverty tends to yield a higher burden on women and girls’ health.